Main Article Content


The substantial amount of food waste generated in Sragen Regency due to inadequate food loss and waste (FLW) management has a detrimental impact on the environment. This study aims to analyze the efforts to optimize FLW management, examine the relationships between variables, and assess stakeholder synergy in accelerating FLW management to support the implementation of a circular economy in the Sragen Regency. This research employs a mixed-methods approach, with data analysis conducted using MICMAC and MACTOR methodologies. The MICMAC analysis results indicate that stakeholder relationships, waste prevention, location factors, cultural factors, and community scale are the core variables for accelerating improvements in FLW management. In contrast, the MACTOR analysis identifies the Environmental Agency (DLH), Kecik Waste Bank, and Si Repi Waste Bank as the primary stakeholders in these efforts. Additionally, the MACTOR analysis highlights changes in community behavior and the utilization of FLW in the circular economy as primary objectives agreed upon by all stakeholders. The findings from the MICMAC and MACTOR analyses provide a basis and reference for determining the model and grand design of an FLW management acceleration strategy to support the implementation of a circular economy in the Sragen Regency.


environment food loss and waste actors MICMAC MACTOR

Article Details

How to Cite
Octavianto, S. N., Amin Pujiati, & Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti. (2024). Hexahelix Analysis: Accelerating Food Loss and Waste Management in Support of Circular Economy Implementation in the Local Region. Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan, 22(1), 77–106.


  1. Abdelradi, F. (2018). Food waste behaviour at the household level: A conceptual framework. Waste Management, 71, 485–493.
  2. Abiad, M. G., & Meho, L. I. (2018). Food loss and food waste research in the Arab world: a systematic review. Food Security, 10(2), 311–322.
  3. Aini, Y. J., & Ginting, S. (2023). The Role of Family Empowerment and Welfare (PKK) in the Welfare of the Pulo Dogom Village Community, Labuhanbatu Utara Regency. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Ilmu Administrasi Publik (JMIAP), 5(2), 113–122.
  4. Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., Mininno, V., Stefanini, A., & Zerbino, P. (2020). Driving the Transition to a Circular Economic Model: A Systematic Review on Drivers and Critical Success Factors in Circular Economy. Sustainability, 12(24), 10672.
  5. Amato, M., Verneau, F., Coppola, A., & La Barbera, F. (2021). Domestic Food Waste and Covid-19 Concern: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Sustainability, 13(15), 8366.
  6. Amicarelli, V., Tricase, C., Spada, A., & Bux, C. (2021). Households’ Food Waste Behavior at Local Scale: A Cluster Analysis after the COVID-19 Lockdown. Sustainability, 13(6), 3283.
  7. Ananno, A. A., Masud, M. H., Chowdhury, S. A., Dabnichki, P., Ahmed, N., & Arefin, A. Md. E. (2021). Sustainable food waste management model for Bangladesh. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 35–51.
  8. Ardiansyah, Damar, A., Machfud, & Hariyadi, S. (2022). Roles and interrelation between variables : a study case of plastic waste management in Jakarta Bay. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 26(5), 41.
  9. Ariyani, N., Prasetya, T., & Gilang, K. (2019). Prospective Structural Method Application to Identify Strategic Variable of Developing Ecotourism Region in Reservoir Area. Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 1st Sampoerna University-AFBE International Conference, SU-AFBE 2018, 6-7 December 2018, Jakarta Indonesia.
  10. Arous, S. A., Capone, R., Debs, P., Haddadi, Y., El Bilali, H., Bottalico, F., & Hamidouche, M. (2018). Exploring Household Food Waste Issue in Algeria. AGROFOR, 2(1), 55-67.
  11. Astria, W. D., Herdiansyah, H., & Tumuyu, S. S. (2023). Food Waste Prevention and Reduction Practices in the Retail Sector in Several Countries (Literature Review). Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 21(2), 350–360.
  12. Atasu, A., Özdemir, Ö., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2013). Stakeholder Perspectives on E‐Waste Take‐Back Legislation. Production and Operations Management, 22(2), 382–396.
  13. Azhari, D. S., Afif, Z., Kustati, M., & Sepriyanti, N. (2023). Penelitian Mixed Method Research Untuk Disertasi. INNOVATIVE: Journal Of Social Science Research, 3(2), 8010–8025.
  14. Babbitt, C. W., Babbitt, G. A., & Oehman, J. M. (2021). Behavioral impacts on residential food provisioning, use, and waste during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 28, 315–325.
  15. Bambang Hermanu. (2022). Environmentally Friendly Food Waste Management. Jurnal Agrifoodtech, 1(1), 1–11.
  16. Barati, A. A., Azadi, H., Dehghani Pour, M., Lebailly, P., & Qafori, M. (2019). Determining Key Agricultural Strategic Factors Using AHP-MICMAC. Sustainability, 11(14), 3947.
  17. Ben Hassen, T., El Bilali, H., & Allahyari, M. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on Food Behavior and Consumption in Qatar. Sustainability, 12(17), 6973.
  18. Bender, K. E., Badiger, A., Roe, B. E., Shu, Y., & Qi, D. (2022). Consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of food purchasing and management behaviors in U.S. households through the lens of food system resilience. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 82, 101107.
  19. Beretta, C., Stoessel, F., Baier, U., & Hellweg, S. (2013). Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland. Waste Management, 33(3), 764–773.
  20. Berjan, S., Vaško, Ž., Ben Hassen, T., El Bilali, H., Allahyari, M. S., Tomić, V., & Radosavac, A. (2022). Assessment of household food waste management during the COVID-19 pandemic in Serbia: a cross-sectional online survey. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(8), 11130–11141.
  21. Bertassini, A. C., Zanon, L. G., Azarias, J. G., Gerolamo, M. C., & Ometto, A. R. (2021). Circular Business Ecosystem Innovation: A guide for mapping stakeholders, capturing values, and finding new opportunities. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 436–448.
  22. Betz, A., Buchli, J., Göbel, C., & Müller, C. (2015). Food waste in the Swiss food service industry – Magnitude and potential for reduction. Waste Management, 35, 218–226.
  23. Bicket, M., Guilcher, S., Hestin, M., Hudson, C., Razzini, P., Tan, A., Ten Brink, P., Van Dijl, E., Vanner, R., & Watkins, E. (2014). Scoping study to identify potential circular economy actions, priority sectors, material flows and value chains. Luxembourg Publications Office of the European Union.
  24. Blomsma, F. (2018). Collective ‘action recipes’ in a circular economy – On waste and resource management frameworks and their role in collective change. Journal of Cleaner Production, 199, 969–982.
  25. Bocken, N. M. P., de Pauw, I., Bakker, C., & van der Grinten, B. (2016). Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy. Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 33(5), 308–320.
  26. Boulet, M., Hoek, A. C., & Raven, R. (2021). Towards a multi-level framework of household food waste and consumer behaviour: Untangling spaghetti soup. Appetite, 156, 104856.
  27. Brown, P., Von Daniels, C., Bocken, N. M. P., & Balkenende, A. R. (2021). A process model for collaboration in circular oriented innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 286, 125499.
  28. Bryant, C., & Bousbaine, A. (2014). Actor Dynamics and Sustainable Development: Emerging Roles of Researchers. Revue Canadienne de Géographie Tropicale, 1(2), 1-5.
  29. Budak, A., & Ustundag, A. (2017). Reverse logistics optimisation for waste collection and disposal in health institutions: the case of Turkey. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 20(4), 322–341.
  30. Cahyani, M. R., Zuhaela, I. A., Saraswati, T. E., Raharjo, S. B., Pramono, E., Wahyuningsih, S., Lestari, W. W., & Widjonarko, D. M. (2021). Tofu Waste Treatment and Its Potential. Proceeding of Chemistry Conferences, 6, 27-33.
  31. Carayannis, E. G., Grigoroudis, E., Stamati, D., & Valvi, T. (2021). Social Business Model Innovation: A Quadruple/Quintuple Helix-Based Social Innovation Ecosystem. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 68(1), 235–248.
  32. Chaerul, M., & Zatadini, S. U. (2020). Food Waste Disposal Behavior and Food Waste Management in Different Countries: A Review. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 18(3), 455–466.
  33. Charbel, L., Capone, R., Grizi, L., Debs, P., Khalife, D., El Bilali, H., & Bottalico, F. (2016). Preliminary insights on household food wastage in Lebanon. Journal of Food Security, 4(6), 131–137.
  34. Chirsanova, A., & Calcatiniuc, D. (2021). The Impact of Food Waste and Ways to Minimize it. Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 128–139.
  35. Clement, J., Alenčikienė, G., Riipi, I., Starkutė, U., Čepytė, K., Buraitytė, A., Zabulionė, A., & Šalaševičienė, A. (2023). Exploring Causes and Potential Solutions for Food Waste among Young Consumers. Foods, 12(13), 2570.
  36. Coletta, V. R., Pagano, A., Pluchinotta, I., Fratino, U., Scrieciu, A., Nanu, F., & Giordano, R. (2021). Causal Loop Diagrams for supporting Nature Based Solutions participatory design and performance assessment. Journal of Environmental Management, 280, 111668.
  37. Cosgrove, K., Vizcaino, M., & Wharton, C. (2021). COVID-19-Related Changes in Perceived Household Food Waste in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 1104.
  38. Dai, S. I. S., & Pakaya, S. I. (2019). Community Empowerment through Waste Management into Economic Value and the Establishment of a Waste Bank in East Pentadu Village, Tilamuta District, Boalemo Regency. Jurnal Ilmiah Pangabdhi, 5(2), 110–118.
  39. De Angelis, R. (2018). Sustainable Development, Corporate Sustainability and the Circular Economy. In Business Models in the Circular Economy. Springer International Publishing.
  40. de Jesus, A., & Mendonça, S. (2018). Lost in Transition? Drivers and Barriers in the Eco-innovation Road to the Circular Economy. Ecological Economics, 145, 75–89.
  41. den Hollander, M. C., Bakker, C. A., & Hultink, E. J. (2017). Product Design in a Circular Economy: Development of a Typology of Key Concepts and Terms. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 21(3), 517–525.
  42. Diaz-Ruiz, R., Costa-Font, M., & Gil, J. M. (2018). Moving ahead from food-related behaviours: an alternative approach to understand household food waste generation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1140–1151.
  43. Dou, Z., Ferguson, J. D., Galligan, D. T., Kelly, A. M., Finn, S. M., & Giegengack, R. (2016). Assessing U.S. food wastage and opportunities for reduction. Global Food Security, 8, 19–26.
  44. Elmsalmi, M., & Hachicha, W. (2013). Risks prioritization in global supply networks using MICMAC method: A real case study. 2013 International Conference on Advanced Logistics and Transport, 394–399.
  45. Esposito, M., Tse, T., & Soufani, K. (2017). Is the Circular Economy a New Fast‐Expanding Market? Thunderbird International Business Review, 59(1), 9–14.
  46. Falasconi, L., Cicatiello, C., Franco, S., Segrè, A., Setti, M., & Vittuari, M. (2019). Such a Shame! A Study on Self-Perception of Household Food Waste. Sustainability, 11(1), 270.
  47. Fauzi, A. (2019). Sustainability Analysis Technique. PT Gramedia.
  48. Fauziah, S. T., Nurmalasari, D., Safputra, A., Sumiati, T., & Yuliani, Y. (2021). The Role of Waste Bank in Community Economy and Environmental Cleanliness in Cikeresek RW 02 Village, Ganjarsabar Village, Nagreg District. Proceedings UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung, 1(84), 133–145.
  49. Febrianto, J., Purwanto, M. Y. J., & Waspodo, R. S. B. (2016). Aquaculture wastewater treatment through anaerobic process using bamboo materials. Jurnal Teknik Sipil Dan Lingkungan, 1(2), 83–90.
  50. Filho, W. L., Voronova, V., Kloga, M., Paço, A., Minhas, A., Salvia, A. L., Ferreira, C. D., & Sivapalan, S. (2021). COVID-19 and waste production in households: A trend analysis. Science of The Total Environment, 777, 145997.
  51. Filimonau, V., & Sulyok, J. (2021). ‘Bin it and forget it!’: The challenges of food waste management in restaurants of a mid-sized Hungarian city. Tourism Management Perspectives, 37, 100759.
  52. Freeman R. E. (1984). Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Pitman.
  53. Freeman, R. E., & Dmytriyev, S. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility and Stakeholder Theory: Learning From Each Other. Symphonya. Emerging Issues in Management, 1, 7–15.
  54. Fujii, H., & Kondo, Y. (2018). Decomposition analysis of food waste management with explicit consideration of priority of alternative management options and its application to the Japanese food industry from 2008 to 2015. Journal of Cleaner Production, 188, 568–574.
  55. Fοx, D., Ioannidi, E., Sun, Y.-T., Jape, V. W., Bawono, W. R., Zhang, S., & Perez-Cueto, F. J. A. (2018). Consumers with high education levels belonging to the millennial generation from Denmark, Greece, Indonesia and Taiwan differ in the level of knowledge on food waste. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 11, 49–54.
  56. Galbreth, M. R., Boyacı, T., & Verter, V. (2013). Product Reuse in Innovative Industries. Production and Operations Management, 22(4), 1011–1033.
  57. Geissdoerfer, M., Morioka, S. N., de Carvalho, M. M., & Evans, S. (2018). Business models and supply chains for the circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 190, 712–721.
  58. Geissdoerfer, M., Vladimirova, D., & Evans, S. (2018). Sustainable business model innovation: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 198, 401–416.
  59. Ghinoi, S., Silvestri, F., & Steiner, B. (2020). Toward the creation of novel food waste management systems: A network approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 246, 118987.
  60. Ghisellini, P., Cialani, C., & Ulgiati, S. (2016). A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 114, 11–32.
  61. Ghisellini, P., Ripa, M., & Ulgiati, S. (2018). Exploring environmental and economic costs and benefits of a circular economy approach to the construction and demolition sector. A literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 178, 618–643.
  62. Giordano, C., Alboni, F., & Falasconi, L. (2019). Quantities, Determinants, and Awareness of Households’ Food Waste in Italy: A Comparison between Diary and Questionnaires Quantities. Sustainability, 11(12), 3381.
  63. Grafström, J., & Aasma, S. (2021). Breaking circular economy barriers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 292, 126002.
  64. Halder, P., Pietarinen, J., Havu-Nuutinen, S., Pöllänen, S., & Pelkonen, P. (2016). The Theory of Planned Behavior model and students’ intentions to use bioenergy: A cross-cultural perspective. Renewable Energy, 89, 627–635.
  65. Hasibuan, R. (2016). Analysis of the impact of household waste on environmental pollution. Jurnal Ilmiah Advokasi, 4(1), 42–52.
  66. Heath, U. (2016). Transitioning to a circular economy requires collaboration. Recycling Today.
  67. Hebrok, M., & Boks, C. (2017). Household food waste: Drivers and potential intervention points for design – An extensive review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 151, 380–392.
  68. Hebrok, M., & Heidenstrøm, N. (2019). Contextualising food waste prevention - Decisive moments within everyday practices. Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, 1435–1448.
  69. Ilyuk, V. (2018). Like throwing a piece of me away: How online and in-store grocery purchase channels affect consumers’ food waste. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 41, 20–30.
  70. Iranmanesh, M., Ghobakhloo, M., Nilashi, M., Tseng, M.-L., Senali, M. G., & Abbasi, G. A. (2022). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on household food waste behaviour: A systematic review. Appetite, 176, 106127.
  71. Janssens, K., Lambrechts, W., van Osch, A., & Semeijn, J. (2019). How Consumer Behavior in Daily Food Provisioning Affects Food Waste at Household Level in The Netherlands. Foods, 8(10), 428.
  72. Jereme, I. A., Siwar, C., Begum, R. A., Talib, B. A., & Choy, E. A. (2018). Analysis of household food waste reduction towards sustainable food waste management in Malaysia. The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, 44(1), 86–96.
  73. Joshi, P., & Visvanathan, C. (2019). Sustainable management practices of food waste in Asia: Technological and policy drivers. Journal of Environmental Management, 247, 538–550.
  74. Jribi, S., Ben Ismail, H., Doggui, D., & Debbabi, H. (2020). COVID-19 virus outbreak lockdown: What impacts on household food wastage? Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22(5), 3939–3955.
  75. Julianelli, V., Caiado, R. G. G., Scavarda, L. F., & Cruz, S. P. de M. F. (2020). Interplay between reverse logistics and circular economy: Critical success factors-based taxonomy and framework. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 158, 104784.
  76. Kagungan, D., Sulistyowati, R., Tresiana, N., & Sulistiyo, E. B. (2023). Tourism Policy Innovation In Lampung Province Through Strengthening The Role of Hexahelix Actors (A Studi of Tourism Politics). International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 40(2), 63.
  77. Kandemir, C., Reynolds, C., Tom, Q., Fisher, K., Devine, R., Herszenhorn, E., Koh, S. C. L., & Evans, D. (2022). Using discrete event simulation to explore food wasted in the home. Journal of Simulation, 16(4), 415–435.
  78. Katajajuuri, J.-M., Silvennoinen, K., Hartikainen, H., Heikkilä, L., & Reinikainen, A. (2014). Food waste in the Finnish food chain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 73, 322–329.
  79. Khor, K. S., Udin, Z. M., Ramayah, T., & Hazen, B. T. (2016). Reverse logistics in Malaysia: The Contingent role of institutional pressure. International Journal of Production Economics, 175, 96–108.
  80. Kirchherr, J., Piscicelli, L., Bour, R., Kostense-Smit, E., Muller, J., Huibrechtse-Truijens, A., & Hekkert, M. (2018). Barriers to the Circular Economy: Evidence From the European Union (EU). Ecological Economics, 150, 264–272.
  81. Kusuma Wardany, Reni Permata Sari, & Erni Mariana. (2020). Socialization of “Waste Bank” Establishment for Income Improvement and Women Empowerment in Margasari. Dinamisia : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 4(2), 364–372.
  82. Lahath, A., Omar, N. A., Ali, M. H., Tseng, M.-L., & Yazid, Z. (2021). Exploring food waste during the COVID-19 pandemic among Malaysian consumers: The effect of social media, neuroticism, and impulse buying on food waste. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 28, 519–531.
  83. Laila, A., von Massow, M., Bain, M., Parizeau, K., & Haines, J. (2022). Impact of COVID-19 on food waste behaviour of families: Results from household waste composition audits. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 82, 101188.
  84. Lakshmi, V. V., Aruna Devi, D., & Jhansi Rani, K. P. (2020). Wealth from Poultry Waste. In Waste Management as Economic Industry Towards Circular Economy. Springer Singapore.
  85. Larsen, S. B., Masi, D., Jacobsen, P., & Godsell, J. (2018). How the reverse supply chain contributes to a firm’s competitive strategy: a strategic alignment perspective. Production Planning & Control, 29(6), 452–463.
  86. Lawrence, K., Cooper, V., & Kissoon, P. (2020). Sustaining voluntary recycling programmes in a country transitioning to an integrated solid waste management system. Journal of Environmental Management, 257, 109966.
  87. Le Borgne, G., Sirieix, L., & Costa, S. (2018). Perceived probability of food waste: Influence on consumer attitudes towards and choice of sales promotions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 42, 11–21.
  88. Liegeard, J., & Manning, L. (2020). Use of intelligent applications to reduce household food waste. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 60(6), 1048–1061.
  89. Linder, M., & Williander, M. (2017). Circular Business Model Innovation: Inherent Uncertainties. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(2), 182–196.
  90. Liu, C., Bunditsakulchai, P., & Zhuo, Q. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on Food and Plastic Waste Generated by Consumers in Bangkok. Sustainability, 13(16), 8988.
  91. Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, A. B., Rojas Luiz, J. V., Rojas Luiz, O., Jabbour, C. J. C., Ndubisi, N. O., Caldeira de Oliveira, J. H., & Junior, F. H. (2019). Circular economy business models and operations management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 235, 1525–1539.
  92. Luna, P., & Suryana, E. A. (2023). Implementation of Food Loss and Waste (FLW) System in Indonesia as An Initiative of G20 Presidency. Jurnal Analis Kebijakan, 6(1), 46–61.
  93. Marino, A., & Pariso, P. (2016). From linear economy to circular economy: research agenda. International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences, 6225(6), 2249–7382.
  94. Martia, R. D., & Fatoni, R. (2020). Implementation of Cleaner Production System and Ipal Planning in Tofu Industry Sragen Central Java. Prosiding University Research Colloquium, 47–54.
  95. Martindale, W. (2017). The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(1), 28–33.
  96. Masi, D., Day, S., & Godsell, J. (2017). Supply Chain Configurations in the Circular Economy: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 9(9), 1602.
  97. Mendoza, J. M. F., Sharmina, M., Gallego‐Schmid, A., Heyes, G., & Azapagic, A. (2017). Integrating Backcasting and Eco‐Design for the Circular Economy: The BECE Framework. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 21(3), 526–544.
  98. Ministry of Environment and Forestry. (2020). National Waste Management Information System. Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
  99. Mirabella, N., Castellani, V., & Sala, S. (2014). Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 28–41.
  100. Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. The Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853.
  101. Mondéjar-Jiménez, J.-A., Ferrari, G., Secondi, L., & Principato, L. (2016). From the table to waste: An exploratory study on behaviour towards food waste of Spanish and Italian youths. Journal of Cleaner Production, 138, 8–18.
  102. Nazarko, J., Ejdys, J., Halicka, K., Nazarko, Ł., Kononiuk, A., & Olszewska, A. (2017). Structural Analysis as an Instrument for Identification of Critical Drivers of Technology Development. Procedia Engineering, 182, 474–481.
  103. Niero, M., Hauschild, M. Z., Hoffmeyer, S. B., & Olsen, S. I. (2017). Combining Eco‐Efficiency and Eco‐Effectiveness for Continuous Loop Beverage Packaging Systems: Lessons from the Carlsberg Circular Community. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 21(3), 742–753.
  104. Nikolaus, C. J., Nickols-Richardson, S. M., & Ellison, B. (2018). Wasted food: A qualitative study of U.S. young adults’ perceptions, beliefs and behaviors. Appetite, 130, 70–78.
  105. Nisa, S. Z., & Saputro, D. R. (2021). Utilization of Waste Bank as an effort to Increase Community Income in Kebonmanis Village Cilacap. BANTENESE: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, 3(2), 89–103.
  106. Nopriani, M., Fauzi, A., & Nuva, N. (2022). Analisis Prospektif untuk Keberlanjutan Pengelolaan TPS 3R di Kota Pangkalpinang A Prospective Analysis For TPS 3R Sustainability in Pangkalpinang City. Eqien - Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Bisnis, 11(1), 1281 -.
  107. Omran, A., Khorish, M., & Saleh, M. (2014). Structural Analysis with Knowledge-based MICMAC Approach. International Journal of Computer Applications, 86(5), 39–43.
  108. Pappalardo, G., Cerroni, S., Nayga, R. M., & Yang, W. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on Household Food Waste: The Case of Italy. Frontiers in Nutrition, 7, 585090.
  109. Pilone, V., di Santo, N., & Sisto, R. (2023). Factors affecting food waste: A bibliometric review on the household behaviors. PLOS ONE, 18(7), e0289323.
  110. Pires, I. M., Fernández-Zamudio, M. Á., Vidal-Mones, B., & Beltrão Martins, R. (2021). The Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Portuguese Households’ Food Waste Behaviors. Human Ecology Review, 26(1), 59–69.
  111. Principato, L., Secondi, L., Cicatiello, C., & Mattia, G. (2022). Caring more about food: The unexpected positive effect of the Covid-19 lockdown on household food management and waste. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 82, 100953.
  112. Putra, M. D. R. E., & Raharjo, S. T. (2023). Pentahelix Involvement in Waste Bank Management. EMPATI: Jurnal Ilmu Kesejahteraan Sosial, 12(1), 55–76.
  113. Radzymińska, M., Jakubowska, D., & Staniewska, K. (2016). Consumer Attitude and Behaviour Towards Food Waste. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 10(1), 175–181.
  114. Raj, A., Dwivedi, G., Sharma, A., Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, A. B., & Rajak, S. (2020). Barriers to the adoption of industry 4.0 technologies in the manufacturing sector: An inter-country comparative perspective. International Journal of Production Economics, 224, 107546.
  115. Ramadhita, A. N., Ekayani, M., & Suharti, S. (2021). Do Hotel Resto Consumers Know the Issue of Food Waste? Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga Dan Konsumen, 14(1), 88–100.
  116. Rhofita, E. I., & Russo, A. E. (2019). Effectiveness of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Performance of Sugar Industry in Kediri District and Sidoarjo District. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, 20(2), 235.
  117. Rizos, V., Behrens, A., Van der Gaast, W., Hofman, E., Ioannou, A., Kafyeke, T., Flamos, A., Rinaldi, R., Papadelis, S., Hirschnitz-Garbers, M., & Topi, C. (2016). Implementation of Circular Economy Business Models by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): Barriers and Enablers. Sustainability, 8(11), 1212.
  118. Roe, B. E., Bender, K., & Qi, D. (2021). The Impact of COVID‐19 on Consumer Food Waste. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 43(1), 401–411.
  119. Romani, S., Grappi, S., Bagozzi, R. P., & Barone, A. M. (2018). Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste. Appetite, 121, 215–227.
  120. Rosenlund, J., Nyblom, Å., Matschke Ekholm, H., & Sörme, L. (2020). The emergence of food waste as an issue in Swedish retail. British Food Journal, 122(11), 3283–3296.
  121. Rossi, M., Germani, M., & Zamagni, A. (2016). Review of ecodesign methods and tools. Barriers and strategies for an effective implementation in industrial companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 129, 361–373.
  122. Sandvik, I. M., & Stubbs, W. (2019). Circular fashion supply chain through textile-to-textile recycling. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 23(3), 366–381.
  123. Saptenno, M. J., Saptenno, L. B., & Timisela, N. R. (2022). Factors Affecting the Awareness Level of Coastal Communities on Waste Management in Ambon Bay Waters, Ambon City. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 20(2), 365–374.
  124. Saputra, T., Nurpeni, N., Astuti, W., Harsini, H., Nasution, S. R., Eka, E., & Zuhdi, S. (2022). Community participation in waste management in waste banks. Jurnal Kebijakan Publik, 13(3), 246–251.
  125. Saputro, W. A., Ulfa, A. N., & Helbawanti, O. (2023). Contribution of Food Waste Generation in Surakarta City’s Buffer Districts. Suluh Pembangunan: Journal of Extension and Development, 5(1), 30–40.
  126. Sassi, K., Capone, R., Abid, G., Debs, P., El Bilali, H., Bouacha, O. D., Bottalico, F., Driouech, N., & Terras, D. S. (2016). Food Wastage by Tunisian Households. AGROFOR, 1(1).
  127. Scacchi, A., Catozzi, D., Boietti, E., Bert, F., & Siliquini, R. (2021). COVID-19 Lockdown and Self-Perceived Changes of Food Choice, Waste, Impulse Buying and Their Determinants in Italy: QuarantEat, a Cross-Sectional Study. Foods, 10(2), 306.
  128. Schanes, K., Dobernig, K., & Gözet, B. (2018). Food waste matters - A systematic review of household food waste practices and their policy implications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 182, 978–991.
  129. Schrank, J., Hanchai, A., Thongsalab, S., Sawaddee, N., Chanrattanagorn, K., & Ketkaew, C. (2023). Factors of Food Waste Reduction Underlying the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior: A Study of Consumer Behavior towards the Intention to Reduce Food Waste. Resources, 12(8), 93.
  130. Sehnem, S. (2019). Circular business models: Babbling initial exploratory. Environmental Quality Management, 28(3), 83–96.
  131. Sehnem, S., Vazquez-Brust, D., Pereira, S. C. F., & Campos, L. M. S. (2019). Circular economy: benefits, impacts and overlapping. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 24(6), 784–804.
  132. Selomo, M., Birawida, A. B., Mallongi, A., & Muammar, M. (2017). Waste Bank as One of the Waste Management Solutions in Makassar City. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 12(4), 232–240.
  133. Silvennoinen, K., Heikkilä, L., Katajajuuri, J.-M., & Reinikainen, A. (2015). Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector. Waste Management, 46, 140–145.
  134. Singh, J., & Ordoñez, I. (2016). Resource recovery from post-consumer waste: important lessons for the upcoming circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 134, 342–353.
  135. Skalli, D., Charkaoui, A., Cherrafi, A., Shokri, A., Garza-Reyes, J. A., & Antony, J. (2024). Analysis of factors influencing Circular-Lean-Six Sigma 4.0 implementation considering sustainability implications: an exploratory study. International Journal of Production Research, 62(11), 3890–3917.
  136. Sofianto, S., Saputra, A., & Candra, M. (2024). The Role of the Environmental Agency in Overcoming Indiscriminate Waste Disposal by the Community in Tanjungpinang City. Jurnal Relasi Publik, 2(1), 147–158.
  137. Srijuntrapun, P. (2018). Appropriate participatory food waste management in the World Heritage Site, the Historic City of Ayutthaya. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(3), 381–386.
  138. Stahel, W. R. (2016). The circular economy. Nature, 531(7595), 435–438.
  139. Stancu, V., Haugaard, P., & Lähteenmäki, L. (2016). Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste. Appetite, 96, 7–17.
  140. Stenmarck, Â., Jensen, C., Quested, T., Moates, G., Buksti, M., Cseh, B., Juul, S., Parry, A., Politano, A., & Redlingshofer, B. (2016). Estimates of European food waste levels. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
  141. Stöckli, S., Dorn, M., & Liechti, S. (2018). Normative prompts reduce consumer food waste in restaurants. Waste Management, 77, 532–536.
  142. Strielkowski, W. (2016). Entrepreneurship, sustainability, and solar distributed generation. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 4(1), 9–16.
  143. Sukwika, T. (2021). Determination of Key Factors for the Development of Sustainable TPST-Bantargebang Management: The MICMAC Approach. TATALOKA, 23(4), 524–535.
  144. Suryana, A., & Ariani, M. (2018). Influencing factors and direction of change in sustainable food consumption patterns. In: Sudaryanto T, Inounu I, Las I, Karnawati E, Bahri S, Husin BA, Rusastra IW, Editors. Realizing Sustainable Agriculture. Technology and Policy Innovation Agenda. Jakarta (ID): IAARD Press. 367–401.
  145. Szakos, D., Szabó-Bódi, B., & Kasza, G. (2021). Consumer awareness campaign to reduce household food waste based on structural equation behavior modeling in Hungary. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(19), 24580–24589.
  146. Todeschini, B. V., Cortimiglia, M. N., Callegaro-de-Menezes, D., & Ghezzi, A. (2017). Innovative and sustainable business models in the fashion industry: Entrepreneurial drivers, opportunities, and challenges. Business Horizons, 60(6), 759–770.
  147. Tomić, T., & Schneider, D. R. (2020). Circular economy in waste management – Socio-economic effect of changes in waste management system structure. Journal of Environmental Management, 267, 110564.
  148. Tsalis, G., Jensen, B. B., Wakeman, S. W., & Aschemann-Witzel, J. (2021). Promoting Food for the Trash Bin? A Review of the Literature on Retail Price Promotions and Household-Level Food Waste. Sustainability, 13(7), 4018.
  149. Urbinati, A., Franzò, S., & Chiaroni, D. (2021). Enablers and Barriers for Circular Business Models: an empirical analysis in the Italian automotive industry. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 551–566.
  150. van der Werf, P., Seabrook, J. A., & Gilliland, J. A. (2019). Food for naught: Using the theory of planned behaviour to better understand household food wasting behaviour. Canadian Geographies / Géographies Canadiennes, 63(3), 478–493.
  151. Vidal-Mones, B., Barco, H., Diaz-Ruiz, R., & Fernandez-Zamudio, M.-A. (2021). Citizens’ Food Habit Behavior and Food Waste Consequences during the First COVID-19 Lockdown in Spain. Sustainability, 13(6), 3381.
  152. Vittuari, M., Masotti, M., Iori, E., Falasconi, L., Gallina Toschi, T., & Segrè, A. (2021). Does the COVID-19 external shock matter on household food waste? The impact of social distancing measures during the lockdown. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 174, 105815.
  153. Wang, L., Xue, L., Li, Y., Liu, X., Cheng, S., & Liu, G. (2018). Horeca food waste and its ecological footprint in Lhasa, Tibet, China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 136, 1–8.
  154. Weetman, C. (2016). A circular economy handbook for business and supply chains: Repair, remake, redesign, rethink. Kogan Page Publishers.
  155. Zakaria, Z., Sophian, R. I., Muljana, B., Gusriani, N., & Zakaria, S. (2019). The Hexa-Helix Concept for Supporting Sustainable Regional Development (Case Study: Citatah Area, Padalarang Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 396(1), 012040.
  156. Zeng, H., Chen, X., Xiao, X., & Zhou, Z. (2017). Institutional pressures, sustainable supply chain management, and circular economy capability: Empirical evidence from Chinese eco-industrial park firms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 155, 54–65.
  157. Zhang, A., Venkatesh, V. G., Liu, Y., Wan, M., Qu, T., & Huisingh, D. (2019). Barriers to smart waste management for a circular economy in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 240, 118198.
  158. Zhu, C., Fan, R., Luo, M., Lin, J., & Zhang, Y. (2020). Urban food waste management with multi-agent participation: A combination of evolutionary game and system dynamics approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 275, 123937.
  159. Zuhra, A., & Angkasari, W. (2023). International Legal Regulation of Food Waste and its Dynamics in Indonesia. Uti Possidetis: Journal of International Law, 4(3), 340–374.